Just do it

Whenever Mrs. K. was faced with difficulties in making decisions, she simply submitted her request to destiny, which manifested in the fact that she questioned several people about her intentions.
Of course, this happened in different ways. Sometimes subtle, sometimes directly, sometimes just general, then again very concrete. One day she asked her best friend, the other day a nice neighbor, then the cashier in the supermarket (if she hands me two Dollar-Notes, I will do it-) and one day it happened that way:

Ms. K. entered a large room, and didn’t even know why she was there. But she saw that the people, seven in number, standing in front of her on a small pedestal in the otherwise empty darkness of the huge hall illuminated by a spotlight, and she knew that these people were like the Seven Sages of Greece, who would now answer her questions concerning her intentions.
“So should I do it?”, Mrs. K asked. Her voice sounded a bit squeaky because she was slightly intimidated in the somehow solemn atmosphere.

“You should definitely do it,” said the first person, a middle-aged woman with warm wrinkles. “You have so much talent, I loved what you do from the very first look.”
“Thank you,” answered Mrs. K. and waited anxiously for the next answer. (I think it’s a good start, she thought.)
“Well,” mumbled an older man in a chequered suit,”I think you definitely have what it takes. You’ll have to work hard, but that won’t stop someone like you from doing it.”
Mrs. K. smiled and rejoiced. No, she thought it wouldn’t stop me, someone like me!A young girl in tight jeans made some kind of movement that irritated Mrs. K. a bit, but then she found out because of the young woman’s grin that this was her way of expressing wellbeing and potential support.
And since the young woman did know about the irritation of Mrs. K., she said,”Hey, you’re all right, mate!”
“All right, mate”, repeated Mrs. K. showed a thumb up and had to smile a little bit.
The next three replies were also full of approval, acknowledgment and attendance, originating from soft and friendly mouths that, if at all, criticised only a hair’s breadth of what Mrs K. was about to do.
But then Mrs. K. heard the following:

“I think it’s a very bad idea.”
The last figure who spoke these words was not really recognizable as a person. It was a little bit pixelated, maybe blurry, maybe the light wasn’t very professionally focused on it. It was impossible to tell whether it was a man or a woman, impossible to tell how old this creature was and where it had come from.
It was the last voice that spoke. At this point Mrs. K. stood still for a long time, probably to find out whether the voice would say something more to her. But she didn’t dare to ask, although she would have liked to know what exactly was “bad” about the idea. But, thought Mrs. K. on her own, I’m not stupid, I can find out myself.
And so, after some reflection, Mrs. K. came to the conclusion that these and other points in her plan had not yet been properly thought through. That it was very, very complicated on the one hand and even more complicated on the other. That it would be safer to just wait for a while and put everything into the balance, in order to check exactly whether it would be worthwhile at all.
“Thank you,” said Ms. K. to the person who could not be personalized.
“You’ve helped me a lot.”

In short:
Ms K. did not put her plan into practice.


On another day, however, a few centuries later, due to miraculous circumstances, Mrs. K. was again in the room that was supposed to enable her to make a decision. She was rather angry about this fact because she felt the presence there was a waste of time and did not want to explain her intentions. So it was no surprise to her that all the people (the same ones as last time) reacted rather cautiously to her plan, except the one person who was quite optimistic.
Mrs. K. didn’t care.

She left the room as soon as she could,
just did it.

Translated with http://www.DeepL.com/Translator


Wenn-Buch für die beste Freundin

Eine sehr schöne Idee!!!


Gesammelt habe ich überall wo immer es nur ging, dabei herausgekommen ist ein dicker Wälzer. Es hat sehr viel Spaß gemacht! Ich danke hier all denen, bei denen ich eine Idee gefunden habe und hoffe, dass andere auch bei mir mal eine Idee finden. Hier mal die Bilder der einzelnen Seiten. Zugegeben, es wäre auch schöner gegangen, aber soviel Zeit hatte ich leider nicht. Aber meine Freundin hat sich doch sehr gefreut.

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Need help for translation :)




My book “Amor und Psyche”/English: Cupid and Psyche, has been published in German and I would like to translate it into English as soon as possible. DeepL.com does a wonderful job, but I need brave readers to pick the bugs from the manuscript. Let me give you just as an example the first few pages…:) If someone feels called: just write me. Thanks.

Translated with http://www.DeepL.com/Translator


Table of contents
Prologue 1
A sick love god 2
From the beginning of things 7
Cupid’s first lovers 21
Men and women 38
Psyche and the Prince of Thebes 58
The Castle in Nowhere 77
How to win a woman over 95
Desire and reality 117
What happens after the happy end 135
Divine Everyday Life 156
The Broken Promise 174
Lovesickness 194
Death and Love 213
Psyches exams 229
One last meeting of the gods 251
Epilogue 259


There is a place in the middle of the earth, from there you can see and hear everything that happens somewhere, even if it is so far away.
Fama built her house there and provided it with countless, doorless entrances and a thousand openings. Her house is open day and night and inside there is a quiet murmur as well as the sea noise or the distant rumbling of Jupiter’s thunder clouds, because there the sounds whirl around and everything she hears repeats itself again and again.
In the entrance hall there is a crowd of rumours coming, they go, a free and light people, true and false, they jumble to thousands of people and there is a tangle of fine voices.
Fama hears them all and feeds on them. From the invented, from lies, from error, from malicious joy, from bewildered fears, and from the quiet whisper of which no one knows the origin. She senses what is happening in the sky, on the sea and on earth and listens curiously to the wide world.
What reaches her hungry ears today fills her with wild joy. Cupid, the little god of love, is said to have fallen in love with a human woman, whom he keeps hidden where no one, but also no one is allowed to find her?

A sick god of love
The nymphs wound God’s flabby body out of the sheet soaked in sweat.
“It’s so terrible!”, she sighed one nymph.
“Shut up and hurry up,” said another nymph. “Cupid must be warm and dry in no time.”
Both rubbed arms, legs, stomach and back of the God dry.
“Will he survive?” whispered a third nymph carrying a fresh sheet. “Of course,” grumbled a bumpy-footed satyr who sat at the head of the bed and cooled Cupid’s hot forehead. “The guy’s not from Ambrosia!”
Amor had been sick for days in his nursery and the only thing he gave away was a soft puff. For days now, Satyr had to wait in the pink tower room and Cupid had to dab the sweat droplets from his forehead. There was only a tiny window through which he could guess a piece of heaven. But as soon as he looked out, the colours of the room hurt his eyes. Pink chests of drawers bite with the fluffy, deep red carpet, walls that squeaked in pink and were lined up to half with dyed wool that looked about three-quarters of a shade lighter. Cupid’s mother Venus had furnished the room before Cupid’s birth.
The Satyr Amor’s lower leg and feet, which could no longer find a place on the mattress and protruded through the bed’s golden bars, looked discontented.
“Why Venus didn’t get him a new bed is incomprehensible to me,” he growled.
Satyr scratched the tufts of fur underneath his horns, twisted his pointed beard and moved his goat’s legs into a more comfortable position. Once again he wished to return to the place where he came from.
Not so long ago, he had lived in the dark forests of Arcadia in the company of the shepherd god Pan. Every day and night there was a big party, fresh forest air, lots of wine, satyrs and nymphs. The best thing, however, was that everyone opened their thighs there willingly or stretched their butts whenever they felt the urge.
Of course, he had immediately volunteered when he heard of the offer of the goddess Venus – the goddess of love and goddess of beauty herself – to be at her service. He and three nymphs were the only ones chosen by Venus, and his friends envied him!
However, the Satyr had completely different ideas about “being at the service of others”. Although there was an atmosphere of sweat and heat in this room, it was not caused by the lustful moaning of the goddess nor by his love play with the nymphs. No. All female beings cared for this lying, sweaty God all day long and had no time for lustful games. He almost threatened to burst!
Concerned, one of the nymphs plucked the blanket and bent over him. The neckline of her gossamer dress sank onto the sheet and revealed two flowering buds.
Satyr suppressed a longing sigh.
“He’s so cold and yet he has a high fever! What disease has infected him?”, she whispered.
“Nobody knows,” said the second nymph, who was busy wrapping cupid’s legs sticking out of bed.
But what then becomes of love?”asked the nymph and her eyes suddenly looked very sad.
“Yes,” the Satyr grumbled,”what will become of love?”
He decided to disappear – as soon as possible – in an undisturbed corner of the huge palace in order to ease himself.
At that moment, Venus entered the room.
At the moment Satyr felt dizzy with delight. Venus was big, she was beautiful, she had perfect curves and a perfect face with eyes, as deep and unfathomable as an ocean. Her lips seemed to be made to suck on a strawberry.
“How’s my son?”
Without waiting for an answer, Venus sat down at the bed and felt Cupid’s forehead.  “Leave us alone,” she said and clapped her hands.
The satyr could not be told twice, although he still had a greedy look at Venus’ alabaster-coloured thighs. The nymphs nodded to Venus with regret and left the room.
“What made you so sick?” mumbled the goddess and reached for Cupid’s hand. “You’re cold as a statue, but there’s a fire burning inside that threatens to burn you. Not even Aeskulap could help you.”
She had placed all her hopes in Aeskulap, the best-known god of medicine. But he was just as perplexed as all the other curative gods.
Venus pressed Cupid’s hand on her cheek.
“I have to do it,” she whispered. “If I don’t do it, you will die and I won’t allow it. Do you hear me? Aeskulap said that if we know the cause of the disease, we will find a cure. So you’re gonna get to the bottom of this.”
So far she had hesitated because she did not want to weaken her son unnecessarily. But if she waited any longer, it might be too late.
Venus closed his eyes and concentrated. She wandered in thoughts through her body and searched inside for the divine power that made her so radiantly beautiful herself.
She sighed as she reached the shining core that was directly in her heart. She wrapped him with her thoughts and detached a tiny piece of it.
“Remember,” she said as she sent the spark. “Remember your story. Remember what made you so sick.”
The spark pounded over with a sentence in Cupid’s body, who gave a short puff of breath in horror.
Venus stroked Cupid over his forehead. “I hope it won’t make me wrinkle.”

From the beginning of things
In the beginning there was nothing but chaos and time. A colorless dot in the middle of nowhere. A raw, disorderly mass. A bunch of clashed antagonistic seeds without context.
It took a while until Cupid realized that he was somewhere in the beginning of all things. He contemplated the emergence of everything, the beginning of the beginnings, the beginning of the primordial beginning. He saw all this from a bird’s eye view and with full consciousness, but did not understand what was going on there.
What he saw was colorless and indefinable. The only thing he was able to determine with certainty was the movement that suddenly took place.
It was as if the masses were pushing for a decision. So in the same thing cold fought with hot, damp with dry, soft with hard, weightless with heavy and it arose: earth and heaven, underworld and upper world, night and shadow, war and strife, longing, desire and desire, masculinity and femininity and in the middle of it all love.
In the midst of all things was love.
Cupid had to smile, because what held everything together was his very own power. But it would still take some time before he could use them, for nothing was formed yet, there was no earth and no people.
However, things sorted themselves out and became clearer than expected.  For the earth Gaia gave birth to the heavens of Uranos to the huge Titans, plus three cyclopses and the Hecatoncheiren, a hundred and fifty-headed creatures. But Uranos hated all these children and hid them in the depths of the earth in the underworld. Gaia, however, was furious about this act and she created the hardest steel, called Adamas, the invincible, to make a huge sickle out of it.
She went deep down into the underworld to her captive sons and daughters and said:”Your father has imprisoned you, my children, and I will no longer accept that. You are called to do more than live in the underworld. Take this sickle and pay him back. I’ll do whatever I can to help you guys with that.”
Eagerly watching Cupid watched what his ancestors did.
The oldest of the Titans, Kronos, agreed to help his mother and himself and accepted the sickle that shone like lightning in the darkness.
The next time Uranos came to Gaia to sleep with her, Kronos, who would later be called the Completer, cut off his father’s virility in the middle of the love play, and threw her off to earth.
From the drops of blood of the cut off limb that fell to the earth, angry creatures arose, who would seek revenge, whether justified or not.
But from the seed of Uranos, which fell into the sea, the most charming and charming creature that the heaven of the gods had known until then came into being: Venus, the goddess of beauty and love.
Shuddered Cupid. So that’s the bestial way his mother was born? That explains a lot.
Uranos died and cursed his son Kronos, may the same thing happen to him with his own children.
Kronos was exactly as his father Uranos had predicted. Though he ruled over the gods and humans during the Golden Age, he also closed his children into dark caves and was emasculated and bled to death by Jupiter, his first-born son.
Again Cupid went through a shudder. Jupiter was his grandfather, the ruler of the gods, he was a little bit peculiar, but he would not have thought he could have done this.
Like shadows, Cupid saw the emerging human race, saw four eras in which people’s behaviour became increasingly cruel and inferior. He witnessed a great flood and the salvation of a single sincere human couple who, at Jupiter’s behest, formed a new humanity out of the clayey bones of mother Gaia.
Cupid shook. He had learned enough.
“Now,” he said to himself,”I want to know how I came into being.”

The next moment, Cupid saw his stepfather Vulkanos. He was surrounded by darkness and struck his hand against his chest to counter the pain that was spreading there. He was in Venus’ wardrobe where it smelled musty. Vulcanoes almost couldn’t find a place in it, considering all the clothes that were hanging here. It was pitch black, but due to the narrow gap between the door and the frame of the cupboard, he could see the bed.
The truth hurt. Why here? Why in the cloud palace? Why did it happen in their marriage bed, why had they not found another room, why not a hiding place? Why did they do it so obviously? Didn’t they have any sense of decency? No sense of shame?
He did not want to believe Helios, the aging sun god, who still boasted of seeing everything. He had hoped that the old man’s eyesight might have decreased. But it was true. There was no longer any doubt about that.
Laughing flirtatiously, Venus pulled the god of war Mars to himself on the bed. Mars buried his face in her curls and rolled on them. Venus opened willingly. Wider and wider than she’d ever done with him, Vulcanos. She moaned loudly and passionately, as if she were a wild animal and not a goddess.
“Yes, Mars, Mars!” she kept shouting.
The god of war battled them as if he had to win a battle.
Vulkanos turned his gaze away and grabbed the chain he had forged.
For days he had been working on the construction, refining the metal over and over again until it was thinner than spider webs and harder than steel. How many times had the two of them met during this time? How often have you slept together? Why did it take him so long to prepare the trap?
Mars moaned passionately and threw his head in the neck, Venus squeezed his butt with her hands and screamed with pleasure.













By Internet Archive Book Imageshttps://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/14559595539/Source book page: https://archive.org/stream/greekmythologysy00scul/greekmythologysy00scul#page/n64/mode/1up, No restrictions, Link

Today we are talking about Cybele, or Rhea, or Magna Mater… and who knows what else she was called.

Her creation goes back a long way into mythical history and all kinds of attempts have already been made to clarify the goddess and the cult around her, because many things, as so often, cannot be fully grasped in our modern times.

It seems quite certain that Kybele is a kind of manifested femininity, because in her mythical context almost always a male counterpart appears. The story is about Kybele and a young man named Attis. But, there are also some other man-woman myths, which are even older(?) and show parallels to the myth of Kybele-Attis.

Inanna and Tammuz (In German he is called Dumuzi, for Dumuzi and Tammuz may be two different deitys.)

Gemeinfrei, Link

Isis and Osiris

By Internet Archive Book Imageshttps://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/14783343912/Source book page: https://archive.org/stream/diepanbabylonist00jereuoft/diepanbabylonist00jereuoft#page/n49/mode/1up, No restrictions, Link

Venus and Adonis.

By after Guercino – Quelle: SLUB Dresden, Public Domain, Link

Anyone who likes can read the details in the corresponding Wikipedia articles. In short, all myths are about the men Dumuzi, Osiris and Adonis dying. How this happens is very different, sometimes there are other variations of the story, but what all stories have in common is that the women bring their dead men back to life.

Historically these myths(?) founded so-called mystery religions ((i. e. Roman-Greco mysteries, secret societies) that shared different religious practices.

This was also the case with Kybele, whose cult lies parallel to the cults of the above-mentioned variants and even more (Orpheus, Mysteries of Eleusis, the Samothraki Mysteries, the Dionysus cult, the cult of the Liber Father in Rome and in southern Italy, the Mithras cult, the cult of Isis and Osiris).

Some of these mystery cults do not refer to the variant “dead man”, but contain, for example, like the mysteries of Eleusis, the tale of Pluto and Proserpina (in which the God of Death robs a living woman from the earth). I assume that these are of a younger date, as the relationship and content is reversed.

Pluto and Proserpina. By reganiOwn work, Public Domain, Link

Tempel/Altar of Kybele, around 700BC. City of Midas/Turkey. By Zeynel CebeciOwn work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link

Tempel/Altar of Kybele, around 700BC. City of Midas/Turkey. Von MEH BergmannEigenes Werk, CC-BY-SA 4.0, Link

We remember that Kybele/Rhea was also equated with the wife of Saturn. So it is not surprising that her myth and cult comes across quite bloody and once again there will be castration.

The Myth (basic features)

According to legend, Jupiter/Zeus once fell asleep on Mount Agdos (Phrygia) and lost his seed during his sleep. From this originated the hideous creature Agdistis, a kind of dwarf twitter thing, which the gods found so ugly that they castrated it.
The good-looking Attis was born from the severed limb, and the emasculated body became the goddess Kybele. In some variations there is also an intermediate narrative in which an almond tree plays a role and in which Attis is carried out by a nymph.
Still, Kybele and Attis were originally the same person in all variations. For this reason, of course, they were particularly interested in each other and in reuniting. After they have found each other, they lived very happily with each other for a while, but then Attis wants to become more independent and intends to marry another woman.
Of course, Kybele felt totally kicked and curses Attis and the whole wedding party with madness.

Attis – totally crazy in the head – runs into the forest and castrates himself under a pine tree, where he bleeds to death.

Kybele regrets her actions and then there are different variations of how the story ends.
Attis turns into a pine tree.
Kybele buries Attis, whose body is never putrefied due to the help of Zeus/Jupiter, in a mountain and lets him cry from priests.
Kybele awakens Attis from the dead and both are worshipped as gods

There are, as already mentioned above, further variants of the myth and it would probably require a doctoral thesis (or at least a very detailed thesis) to compare the different sources and contents.
In any case, even a superficial examination reveals that essential elements (love couple, death, resurrection) of other ancient myths come up here again.

But there are also other myths about the origin of Kybele.

There, for example, is the interesting story, in which the father of Kybele was Meon (or Protogonus), king in Phrygia and Lydia, and her mother Dindyma. Meon did not want a daughter and had the girl abandoned on Mount Kybelus after her birth. There she was raised by wild animals. Panthers and other predators gave the child milk until some shepherds found the baby and fed it.
Kybele grew up to be a beautiful maiden, who preferred to invent pipes, drums and cymbals, which later became important in the cult of the goddess, and she also dealt with medicine, especially for the benefit of the cattle and the children, which she healed with her words. Because of this special role, she was called “Mountain Mother”. A close friend of hers was Marsyas, her love was the beautiful male Attis.
(Source: http://www.imperiumromanum.net/wiki/index.php/Kybele)

In any case, it is remarkable that a typical storyline, as it is otherwise known only from male descendants (especially Romulus and Remus, Moses, perhaps even Jesus) is applied to a woman.
In fact, there are other myths in history where a woman is nourished by animals and then found by shepherds and/or wise men.
A well-known example of this is Queen Semiramis.

By Ernest Wallcousins (1883–1976) – From Myths of Babylonia and Assyria by D. MacKenzie (1915-now in the public domain).Originally uploaded to en.wikipedia; description page was here., Public Domain, Link

Where does the myth come from?

Many elements of the myth are of phrygian origin, as you can see in the numerous Attis depictions (phrygian clothes and especially: the cap!).

CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

The Phrygians were a kingdom that was in the territory of today’s Turkey around the 8th century BC. A few centuries earlier, the Hittites lived there – and then there is a time around the year 1000 B. C., where one does not know exactly what happened.
Among the Phrygians, the goddess Kybele was a kind of main goddess. Apart from Midas City, she was also revered in other cities, such as Pessinus, where the legendary palace of King Midas is said to have been built.

King Midas was probably a “true” historical person, a (first?) king of the Phrygians. There are also various legends surrounding him. Thus he is said to have been a son of Kybele and Gordios, to whom, according to legend, the Gordian knot can be traced back, which Alexander the Great “loosened” in the 3rd century B. C. with a crude sword stroke.

Midas was also the one who allegedly had the foolish wish that everything he touched would turn into gold.

By Walter Crane (1845-1915) – http://www.reusableart.com/d/2974-2/midas-01.jpgGallery page http://www.reusableart.com/v/mythology/greek/midas/midas-01.jpg.html, Public Domain, Link

The gift proved to be extremely useless because it turned what he wanted to eat and drink into gold – and even his own daughter – but after a bath in the river Pactolos he was fortunately freed again.

Midas is also said to have acted as referee in the musical competition between Apollo and Pan. In some versions, he is also a referee in the dispute between Apoll and Marsyas. .
As punishment for his wrong decision (he did not choose the god Apollo in all variations, but decided that Marsyas was the better musician) Apollo bewitched him with donkey ears, which Midas then hid under the lovely Phrygian cap.

By Michelangelo Cerquozzihttp://www.christies.com/lotfinder/paintings/michelangelo-cerquozzi-king-midas-5022114-details.aspx, Public Domain, Link

By Anonymoushttp://www.pizan.lib.ed.ac.uk/otea.html, Public Domain, Link

By Andrea Vaccaro – http://www.dorotheum.com, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16084069

The Roman poet Ovid (around the year 0) writes that Midas hides his donkey ears, but his hairdresser once got to see them and couldn’t keep the secret. Instead of just telling everyone, he digs a hole in the ground and whispers it into it.
Here reed grows, which told the peasants the secret.

All in all, it remains to be said that the Phrygians, and in particular the first great ruler of Midas, have experienced a certain ridiculousness throughout history.
It will not be too far-fetched to claim that this could also have had an impact on the cult of Kybele. The different variations of their myth and further details mentioned below let us assume that this is the case.
The fact that the historical losers of history are being denigrated is also something that can almost always be observed because history is known to be written by the victors, who have no interest in honoring the defeated.
Livius already pointed this out (as a Roman historian) when he had the Gallic king Brennus say:”Vae victis”, meaning “You poor defeated”.

Also in Rome’s victory over Carthage (Aeneas and Dido) one can presume such behavior, although Kybele plays an important part in this defeat.

But first, a few words about the cult around Kybele are to be mentioned.

The Korybantes. By Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich, 1845-1923 – http://ia360615.us.archive.org/2/items/ausfhrlichesle0201rosc/ausfhrlichesle0201rosc.pdf, Public Domain, Link

So-called Korybantes danced at the celebrations in honor of the goddess Kybele. The myth says that the celebrations were held mainly in memory of her deceased beloved Attis, but we can also read about a very orgiastic celebration (developed from this funeral service?), which shows significant similarities to the party time of the Bacchantes.
By the way, the male priests of the Kybele are said to have castrated themselves during such orgiastic celebrations. To talk about castration again.

In the Roman Empire, Kybele is revered mainly after the battle of Zama. Carthaginian Hannibal had frightened Rome for decades, and Cornelius Scipio – as befits a good Roman – consulted the oracle in Delphi with the Senate before entering the battle against Hannibal.
There they were told that Rome could destroy Carthago if they imported the “Great Mother” (Magna Mater) from Phrygia.
So Kybele was identified as Magna Mater, shipped to Rome and the rest is history. I think that this is also the most likely answer to identify her with the Titaness Rhea.

By Globetrotter19Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link


Today it’s all about the god Saturn and a great Roman festival bearing his name, the “Saturnalia” – and it’s a fiery affair.

Here we can see Saturn/Cronos and Zeus/Jupiter. By Anonymoushttp://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet/detail/ODLodl~1~1~40328~108312:Le-roman-de-la-rose, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=52963935“>Link

That must have hurt. By Anonymoushttps://boondocksbabylon.com/2015/05/11/the-castration-of-uranus/, Public Domain, Link

Saturn as God had different functions. In Greek antiquity, he is known as “Cronos”, the son of the earth (Gaia) and heaven (Uranos).

By T2000 from pt, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3605290“>Link

The picture also shows Pontos and Tartaros, i. e. the ocean and the underworld, which in the broadest sense can be seen as siblings of Saturn/Cronos. He is commonly associated with time, but he also had tasks such as prosperity, agriculture, renewal, freedom…

Over time, these characteristics have become his. It is difficult to reconstruct what its original function was. Perhaps it is right to assume that he – in the broadest sense – was one of the fertility deities, a mixture between Mutunus Tutunus and the weather gods. But that’s speculative.

His relationship with his parents (Gaia and Uranos) and his own children is definitely interesting: Jupiter/Zeus and a large part of the Roman-Greek pantheon.

Gaia and Uranos were the parents of the Titans. Either Gaia has born (and married) Uranos out of herself or Uranos had a father, namely the Aether, who was the son of darkness (Erebus) and night (Nyx). However, the more precisely one deals with them, the more closely one deals with something that is described as a “cosmic egg”, namely the idea (probably of Egyptian origin) that the universe was created from this very object – and then, of course, all these personalized abstractions, such as time, darkness, night, day, etc., are evolving.

Here we can see „Geb“. By Anonymous (Egypt) – Walters Art Museum: Home page  Info about artwork, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18845554

However, the question of the origin of hen and egg remains unanswered. Geb is both the name of this goose, which allegedly laid the cosmic egg from which everything originated and its own child (or something that originated from the egg), which was a male Egyptian earth god called Geb. Nut, his heavenly counterpart, was female. (Note the reversal of Gaia (earth) and Uranos (sky) in ancient Greece.)

The idea of a cosmic egg exists in many cultures. Even in the Baltic-Finnish region.

Saturn, as the last son of Gaia and Uranos, made sure that he and his siblings (partly “normal” gods, but partly also gruesome monsters) were able to escape from the Tartaros, where they had been locked by Uranos, fearing that his children would steal his power.

Saturn did this by emasculating his father at the behest of his mother Gaia, as can be seen in the pictures above.

Nevertheless, Saturn experienced almost the same thing, as he – during his reign – also made some mistakes. For example, he did not free his imprisoned brothers and sisters, but let them stew in the earth, what his mother Gaia (the earth itself) did not like so much. She was then also the one who said that Saturn would have problems with his own children.

So, Saturn decided to simply eat his children, as you can see in the following picture.

Von Peter Paul Rubens[1], Gemeinfrei, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1723595“>Link

Saturn’s wife Rhea could no longer see this and decided to hide their last child – Zeus/Jupiter – from the voracious father. Zeus thus reached the earth and was suckled by a goat or nurse, who is said to have something to do with the cornucopia.

When Zeus/Jupiter was old enough, he demands his father reigns over heaven and earth and two violent battles, known as Titanomachy and Gigantomachy, erupted, which have been recorded in many pictures.

By Cornelis van Haarlemwww.smk.dk and soeg.smk.dk, Public Domain, Link

By GryffindorOwn work, Public Domain, Link

By Guido ReniOwn worksailko, Public Domain, Link

By Ethiop Painter – Jastrow (2006), Public Domain, Link

After these wars, the brothers and sisters Zeus/Jupiter, Poseidon/Neptune and Hades/Pluto divide the earth among themselves. Jupiter gets the sky, Neptune the sea and Pluto the underworld.

There are, by the way, stories of god battles, as well as those of the primeval egg, in many European and southeastern cultures. The Scandinavian Æsir fight with the Vanir, Babylonian Marduk fights Tiamat, Hurrian Kumarbi fights Anu, the Hindu-God Indra fights the Asuras.

For the European Roman-Greek region, the godfighting stories were handed down by Hesiod.

By Gustave Moreau – Gustave Moreau, 1826-1898 : catalogue de l’exposition à Paris, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, 29 septembre 1998-4 janvier 1999, à Chicago, the Art institute, 13 février-25 avril 1999, à New York, the Metropolitan museum of art, 24 mai-22 août 1999. Paris : Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1996. ISBN 2711835774, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10748736“>Link

We know little about Hesiod, probably he lived in Boiotia in the 7th century B. C., a landscape which got its name from the Greek word for cattle. His most famous works are “Works and Days” and the abovementioned tales of the gods come from “Theogony”.

In “Works and Days”, Hesiod praises the value of work and describes the sequence of human history as a succession of eroding ages.

Saturn is said to have ruled over the golden age of mankind. And from then on everything just got worse. (Silver, bronze, iron…)

This thought was already widespread in antiquity, according to a Babylonian saying from 3000 BC.

“Young people no longer pay attention to age, consciously showing an unkempt appearance, thinking of overthrow, showing no willingness to learn and rejecting adopted values”.

Which may explain some of the current situation. 😉

An is this maybe the reason why, from a mythical point of view at least, the children emasculated and emaciated their parents?

The golden age. Von Lucas Cranach der Ältere – 1. Unbekannt2. Nasjonalgalleriet, Presse, aktuelle Utstillinger i Oslo, Gemeinfrei, Link

In the golden age, when Saturn ruled, according to legend, the celebration of Saturnalia was born. Justin, a historian from the approx. 3rd century AD, writes::

“The first inhabitants of Italy were the Aborigines [ab origine], whose king Saturnus is said to have been a man of such extraordinary righteousness that no one was a slave in his reign or possessed any private property, but that all things were common and undivided, as a property for the use of each one; in remembrance of this way of life, it was decreed that slaves and their masters went to the table at Saturnalia”.

Saturnalia was thus, according to its origins, a feast that was directly attributed to the golden age, in which people lived in paradise with no need to work, as the earth willingly gave them its fruits. Of course, all people were equal at that time and there was no property and therefore no disputes.

In the Roman Empire, there were four great feasts:

The Saturnalia

The Bacchanalia

The Lupercalia

and the festivities around the Goddess Bona Dea.

There will be a blog article of all festivals in the future.

Saturnalia took place from December 17th to December 23rd and therefore overlap to a large extent with our Advent and Christmas season, interestingly enough a time which is also said to be about giving rather than taking.

By Guido Reni – The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=157954“>Link

Saturn may have had a historical forerunner, an Etruscan God, which is called Satre, almost like a modern philosopher. The Etruscans lived before and at the same time as the Romans, introducing the first kings of Rome., The god Satre was a rather dark, unpredictable deity whose direction was the northwest. He was also important for the visceral examination, a kind of fortune telling method adopted by the Romans from the Etruscans. The Etruscans even had their own interpretation tool.

By LokilechOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1804667“>Link

However, this form of divination is much older than the Etruscans, because the Sumerians already made use of it.

By UnknownJastrow (2005), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=466940“>Link

Around the year 2000 BC there was a real cult around the viscera, in which the liver, in particular, was of special interest. Several cuneiform tablets were described, which contained precise information about which part of the liver was to be interpreted depending on how it was shaped. At every palace that claimed to be something, there was a “Haruspex” or Barutu (Babylonian). The Aztecs also had similar ceremonies.

If necessary, however, it could also be less bloody, for example in the case of oracle methods with home-grown flour, smoke or oil.

Also the egg is a very popular and widely used oracle, both then and nowadays. (We remember the “cosmic egg” from which everything is supposed to have originated, and his Father-Mother “Geb”.)

I can recommend this wonderful German Wikipedia article about egg oracle to anyone who is interested.

Apparently, this type of oracle method is best suited for the dark season and of course, at Easter.

By Stan Shebs, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=65109“>Link

Ostara. By Unknown – Transferred from de.wikipedia to Commons. original upload date 2004-01-30. Original uploader was Rumpenisse at de.wikipedia, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1914652“>Link

Geb and Nut. Von E. A. Wallis Budge (1857-1937) – The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. II, colour plate facing page 96, Gemeinfrei, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11976865“>Link

The woman of Saturn is in most sources called “Ops”, a Sabine goddess for prosperity, harvest, and work. In her honor, there were two days of celebration, a Thanksgiving and a feast held during Saturnalia. There are many parallels to the later Roman cereal goddess Ceres, for example, the cornucopia is a common attribute of both goddesses.

Some sources also mention Lua as Saturn’s wife, who is probably of Etruscan origin. Captured weapons of the enemies were sacrificed to her.

Eventually, Lua and Ops were the same goddesses.

In the ancient Greek variant Saturn = Chronos, Ops/Lua = Rhea. As a mother goddess, there are many parallels to Gaia, Magna Mater, and Cybele.

This is also noticeable in their cult. Rhea was originally worshipped on Crete and she seems to have had some very noisy and sonorous festivals.

By Jacques BlanchardUnknown, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4399546“>Link

It is also interesting to note that the name is identical to Rhea Silvia, the woman who was visited by God Mars to create an empire with her. …. Now, Rhea and especially Kybele will be the focus of attention next week.


Todays article is about the sun god Apollo.

First of all, a little warning advertising in advance: Apollo plays a leading role in my upcoming book “Cupid and Psyche”. He is the best friend of Cupid/Amor, but of course much cooler and more capable than the little god of love, who is the protagonist in my book, but has just been entrusted with his area of responsibility.
Just today I reworked an exciting scene in which Apollo and Amor compete in a match. However, I don’t write more about it than that, because I want to make you curious, for the book will probably be published in English in summer 2018.
So, is it a rather difficult contribution today (How do you explain something that you don’t really want to explain in detail?), but still: it’s time for Apollo!

That is pretty close to what I imagined him to look like. 😉  By Jacob Matham (Holland, Haarlem, 1571-1631) – Image: http://collections.lacma.org/sites/default/files/remote_images/piction/ma-31877059-O3.jpgGallery: http://collections.lacma.org/node/170982, Public Domain, Link

By Stanisław Wyspiańskihttp://www.pinakoteka.zascianek.pl/Wyspianski/Wysp_Iliada.htm, Public Domain, Link

Isn´t that Cupid next to him?
By http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/obf_images/91/26/4827208a9f6c82795ee9cff825b3.jpgGallery: http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/V0035796.html, CC BY 4.0, Link

On the last picture you can see Apollo with a dragon being (and Cupid). If you want to know more about it, you have to be patient, because also this story was “woven in” on the first 30 pages of Cupid and Psyche. It is also the reason why Amor thinks Apollo is really great and starts to practice archery himself – or at least to carve arrows, because both Apollo and Amor were gifted and enthusiastic archers. And so was Diana, Apollo’s twin sister, by the way.

The “Quiz” was not written by me, but what did Apollo do here? Keyword “Marsyas”, remember. 😉 By Melchior Meier (Swiss, active in Italy between 1572 and 1582) – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Melchior_Meier_-_Apolo,_Marsias,_Midas_e_Pan,_1581.jpg, Public Domain, Link

I can tell the story behind this picture, although it is not a “nice” story. In terms of cruelty, Apollo is equal to his twin sister Diana (a moon goddess). Her escapades are named – at least indirectly – in Cupid and Psyche, because Diana is in my variant a, let’s say, somewhat cooler lady, who can also be quite brute whilst certain phases of the moon, but with her brother Apollo I was a bit cautious, because I didn’t want to write a horror novel. Before the story from the picture is unravelled, there has to be told a mythical story in which Apollo and Diana rage together.

Niobe.By Jan Boeckhorsthttp://www.kmska.be/nl/collectie/catalogus/, Public Domain, Link

Apollo and Diana are the children of Leto/Latona and Jupiter/Zeus. I don’t want to say too much about the birth process, because my book… ADVERTISEMENT ADVERTISEMENT 😉
In any case, Leto/Latona had only these two and no other children. This was unusual for antiquity and so it happened that one day a queen boasted of having more children than Leto/Latona.
Queen Niobe had 7 sons and 7 daughters.
As soon as Apollo and Diana heard that their mother had been insulted, so to speak, they flew to earth and killed the sons of Niobe. For some inexplicable reason – maybe because she was so desperate and angry?- Niobe poured fuel into the fire and said that she still had more children than Leto/Latona (namely 7 instead of 2) – and the twin children shot also six of Niobes daughters with their arrows.
Apparently, Niobe realized what was happening and begged them to at least leave her the youngest daughter.

What they did not. Von Ruchhöft-PlauEigenes Werk, Gemeinfrei, Link

Marsyas. By Elihu VedderSothebys, New York, 11 April 2013, lot 63, Public Domain, Link

The “Quiz” picture above refers to Marsya’s cruel end.
Marsyas reminds optically of these ones here, therefore conclusions could possibly be drawn, if one deals with the history of the origin of sun gods.
Marsyas was a satyr, a demi-divine being and probably the companion of Kybele (there will also be a blog article about her in time). He loved the music and especially the playing on the double flute. Legend says that the double flute was invented of Athene/Minerva, but she threw it away after some time because it had become boring. Marsyas found it and started to play.
Eventually he was so enthusiastic about this that he asked Apollo to compete. The Muses, who had been appointed as arbitrators (and should have been very partisan, because Apollo had love relationships to almost every Muse!), decided that Marsyas could play better. But then Apollo really went to great lengths and convinced with the kithara (a kind of harp guitar) and vocals.

The competition. By Cornelius van PoelenburghJens Mohr –  LSH 86741 (hm_dig4505_3713), Public Domain, Link

Marsyas had lost and, as if they had nothing better to do at that time, he was then hung up on a spruce (the sacred tree of Kybele) and skinned by Apollo….
As I said before, I am really wondering how and if this incident could be interpreted mythologically in the evolutionary history of sun gods.

Molting, in general, is done for example by snakes and this happens completely without pain. – But not for Marsyas.

Von Tizian – 1./2. Scanned from the book The Complete World of Greek Mythology, ISBN 0500251215 (orginal uploaded by en:User:BorgQueen as en:Image:The Flaying of Marsyas.jpg)3. The Bridgeman Art Library, Objekt 388734, Gemeinfrei, Link

There are different interpretations in the Wikipedia about why Marsyas had to suffer such a cruel fate. The main explanation is the punishment of his “hybris”, the “overestimation of himself”. (Hybris was also a nymph, by the way.)
Hybris comes from the verb hybrízein, which means as much as an unrestrained sprouting (e. g. by plants or swelling rivers), which also contains a certain violence.
This phenomenon is found in many ancient stories, e. g. also in the above-mentioned story of Niobe. Hybris is followed by Nemesis, a divine punishment.
Nevertheless, it is questionable why Marsyas was punished for such a simple thing as playing the flute. The answer may be that playing music with the flute is an allegorical tool, that “the flute” is, therefore, a representation of God’s own creative realm (e. g. the music), as indicated by the Muses attending, who represent other areas of cultural creation than just music.

The flute itself is, in any case, a very old musical instrument, perhaps even the oldest one of all. The following specimen is 40,000 years old and consists of griffon vulture bones.

Von MuseopediaEigenes Werk, CC-BY-SA 4.0, Link

And Mozart has dedicated an entire opera to a “flute”, whose interpretation (by Erich Neumann) shows many mythical references (German). Among other things, Neumann writes:”the music of the Magic Flute becomes the supreme revelation of the union of the masculine and the feminine in the sign of wisdom of the heart, which hints at the myth of Isis and Osiris”.

No wonder then that Apollo was not amused when Marsyas boasted of these abilities.

By Texas A&M University-Commerce Marketing Communications Photography15031-Magic Flute Production-0465, CC BY 2.0, Link

In this photo, you can see a new performance of the Magic Flute, more precisely a scene with Sarastro, which in the piece also represents a kind of “sun god” or rather a good “sun king”. He is opposed by the “Queen of the Night”, who can become very angry.

youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JRWKy-IzkcM?start=40

When you look at the origin of sun gods, you´ll soon discover, that they existed in abundance. I, therefore, will only refer to the oldest variant.

The oldest known sun god was the Sumerian god Utu. He represented the sun and justice.

Here in a somewhat younger version called “Shamash”. By PriorymanOwn work, GFDL, Link

He had a twin sister like Apollo, but also other siblings.
Inanna, his twin sister, was in charge of love, sex and war.
Ereshkigal, his older sister, was a goddess of the underworld.
Iskur, his brother, was a kind of weather god, also known as Hadad/Adad

His parents were the moon gods Nanna and Ningal, which was worshipped mainly by cowherds.

As I have often mentioned, there are some overlaps and similarities among the many ancient gods (antiquity = almost 2000 years later than the Sumerians and the gods just mentioned). I just noticed that the genealogy (i. e. the family history) of the gods seems to have turned completely around in the two thousand years up to antiquity. Children become parents and vice versa.

This can be clearly seen in Nanna and Ningal (moon gods), whose properties are represented in the ancient world by Diana. Diana is the child of Jupiter, a kind of weather god, who is in the Sumerian variant still the child (Iskur) of the moon deities.

… Someday they’re gonna grow up, the little ones. 😉

By Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-1984-0807-017 / Grubitzsch (geb. Raphael), Waltraud / CC-BY-SA 3.0, CC BY-SA 3.0 de, Link

Maybe this shift has something to do with the change of the time calculation away from the moon calendar to the solar calendar or maybe this shift even caused the “new” solar calendar?

About Utu (or Shamash) there is a mythical story that looks like this in the original:

By Timo RollerOwn work, CC BY 3.0, Link

It is the so-called “Epic of Gilgamesh”, one of the oldest stories of mankind, a heroic journey which influenced more famous versions such as the Odyssey, Illias, Aeneis, and others. The rough structure of the hero’s journey can still be found in many modern novels.

What’s the myth about?

Dated back to the 3rd millennium B. C., this story is about a possible king (or a literary fictional figure) named Gilgamesh, his friend Enkidu, who dies in the context of the story, and Gilgamesh’s following quest for immortality, which he does not find.

Utu/Shamash appears in some crucial parts. He seems to be a kind of protégé for Gilgamesh, who has been arguing with Inanna. After Enkidu and Gilgamesh have killed the celestial bull that Inanna wanted to get, they take out his heart “and lay it down in front of Shamash”.
Enkidu then falls ill and dies, and Gilgames gives Shamash various objects to be passed on to the other Gods of the underworld. Among other things, a bottle of lapislazuli (for Ereshkigal), a carnelian flute (for Dumuzi), a throne and a scepter of lapislazuli (for Namtar), etc.[see Maul, Stefan, Das Gilgamesch-Epos, Beck 2012, p. 140f.]

By Veldkamp, Gabriele and Maurer, Markus – Veldkamp, Gabriele. Zukunftsorientierte Gestaltung informationstechnologischer Netzwerke im Hinblick auf die Handlungsfähigkeit des Menschen. Aachener Reihe Mensch und Technik, Band 15, Verlag der Augustinus Buchhandlung, Aachen 1996, Germany, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

Another concluding reference to a philosophical examination of the topic “sun”.

The above picture shows a section of Plato’s allegory of the cave. We see the sun at the top of the picture and the tied up people who stare at the wall in front of them perceiving the shadows to be “real” – instead of deriving from things running behind them.
The parable can be interpreted in quite different ways, but Plato calls the sun the only “true and good” point of knowledge.
So: if someone from the prisoners would come out and recognize the world – and especially the sun, he would have found “the truth”.

So it does not surprise that Apollo – in addition to his function as a “Lightbringer” – was also the God of Knowledge.

By http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/obf_images/98/f5/ccc98899824d086d41fd05084969.jpgGallery: http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/L0002748.html, CC BY 4.0, Link



Come in! 🙂 By Adelino Manuel Pinhe…, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

Today, we are talking about the Roman goddess Cardea, who was responsible for the door – and everything connected with it (threshold, handle, hinges, handles).
Her male counterpart was called Forculus and if you write about door deities, of course, the two-faced Janus may not be missing, who is probably the best known one of all.
Perhaps this article opens a door for some readers who have so far never had any contact with mythology. I would appreciate that! 🙂

By Ultima Thule, 1927 – Ultima Thule, 1927, Public Domain, Link

Janus had a temple on the Forum Romanum, which is said to have been built in the time of the second legendary Roman king Numa Pompilius. This king was the successor of Romulus and married to a Sabine. He introduced another important cult (probably of Sabine origin) besides Janus, that of the Vesta.

A brief review of Roman history:
Romulus and Remus, the sons of the war god Mars and the Vestal Rhea Silvia, were found and suckled by a wolf after the death of their mother (she was not allowed to have children as a Vestal).

By Peter Paul Rubens[1], Gemeinfrei, Link
Mars and Rhea Silvia.

By Heinrich Aldegrever – Private collection, Public Domain, Link

According to legend, Rhea Silvia was supposed to be drowned in the Tiber, and a servant was said to throw the children into the Tiber. There are different variations of what happened to Rhea Silvia. Either she dies, or the river god Tiberius mercies her – as it happened to Romulus and Remus.

By Maître aux incriptions blanches, XV siècle – British Library: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/results.asp, CC0, Link

Here you can see very nicely how the twins are found by Faustulus and brought to Acca. Faustulus, a shepherd, and Acca, become the parents of Romulus and Remus.

Romulus kills his twin brother Remus and turns into the first king of Rome. The parallel to the biblical fratricide of Cain and Abel is worth mentioning.

By AnonymousHampel Auctions, Public Domain, Link

As king of Rome, Romulus had a big problem at the beginning: there are a lot of men in Rome, but no women. Romulus decides to get women for the Romans and lures his neighbours into a trap: the Sabinians and especially their daughters.

By Christoph Fesel (1737–1805) Dorotheum, Public Domain, Link
The Sabine robbery.

What initially appears to be a classic women’s robbery may seem a little less drastic, considering that Romulus first asked the Sabine fathers for their daughters’ hands. Perhaps some of them might have fallen for one of the stately Romans?
This is of course very speculative, but it is certain (mythologically “certain”, to be specific) that the female Sabins, as mothers of Roman-Sabinese children, ensured that their husbands and fathers did not continue to war with each other.

By UnknownWeb Gallery of Art:   Image  Info about artwork, Public Domain, Link Painting by Jaques Louis David, painted 10 years after the French Revolution (1799).

According to legend, King Numa Pompilius, the successor of Romulus, lived with the Sabinians for a while and brought the Sabine Vesta cult to Rome.

By sv:Constantin Hölscher (1861–1921)http://www.villa-grisebach.de/, Public Domain, Link Im Tempel der Vesta.

There are different approaches to the historical development of Janus (as far as this can be traced back historically at all). Mythologically, his cult is also attributed to the second king of Rome.
Some religious scholars assume that he is a deity of “beginning” and “end”, a kind of “main deity” on which everything else depends in principle. Freely based on Hermann Hesse:”Every beginning has a magic and every end has a new beginning.”

Vesta would then be the “third side of the coin”, a goddess of fire (eternal fire). The initial-and-end God Janus and Vesta can also be found in other cultures, especially in India as Vaju and Saraswati.

By Suraj BelbaseOwn work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link Vayu, a kind of “wind god” who is also connected with the breath (Prana).

By http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/obf_images/c2/62/726e0a0ed16128a5cc5dd714bd36.jpgGallery: http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/V0045121.html, CC BY 4.0, Link Saraswati with peacock (also a symbolic animal of Juno/Hera).

Relatively complicated and somewhat older, but nevertheless worthwhile are the thoughts of the religious scholars Eliade, Schmitz and Dumézil, who have kindly been included in the Wikipedia article about Janus.

The reference of Janus to a sun god is also remarkable at this point, because he then might be connected with the two solstices in the year and was already known to the Sumerians. Isidor of Seville describes the solstices as “two doors of heaven” (ianuae coeli) from which the sun comes out and enters in again (Etymologiae 13.1.7). Ianua (lat. door) and Ianus/Janus are closely connected etymologically.
From knowledge of the solstices also the mythological figure of the “divine twins” is said to have emerged, which appear in many cultures and in my opinion also reverberate in the double-faced Janus. Or in the history of Romulus and Remus.
Perhaps even in the history of Cain and Abel?
For one of the brethren is mortal, and one is immortal.
Here too one can obtain comprehensive information, though the reference to Australian mythology is missing in both parts (still).

However, E. Smart comes to a conclusion regarding this, which I also would have formulated now. 😉

The temple of Janus had a special function in ancient Rome for centuries.

By Peter Paul Rubens

Whenever Rome was at war, its doors remained open. In peacetime the doors were closed again. It is possible, however, that this practice was an invention of Emperor Augustus, who at the time of his reign boasted of having closed the temple of Janus three times.

If you look at the mythological tales about the god Janus, you will also find a connection to the goddess Cardea, which is handed down by the Roman poet Ovid.

By No machine-readable author provided. Auréola assumed (based on copyright claims). No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., Public Domain, Link Ovid in Microsoft Paint.

Ovid was a poet – or rather a writer who wrote in verse, as it was customary at the time – who lived in the age of Emperor Augustus. Many of his stories can be found in modern literature (in a modified form). He made it his business to write about love and the art of loving (Amores, Ars Amatoria) But he also collected different mythical stories (Metamorphosen, Fasti) and was finally bannded from his favorite city Rome

The story of Janus and Cardea comes from the part of his work dealing with mythical stories, the Fasti.

Public Domain, Link
Ovid and his sweetheart Corinna.

Ovid was, one could interpret this from his lyrics or look at the quite obvious picure above, a very passionate person, whereby the question always remains, of course, whether he really described himself or let a fictitious, lyrical ego tell. For example: his banishment may never have taken place, but rather was an invention of himself.

By Evelyn De Morgan – artrenewal.com, Public Domain, Link Medea.

This “literary fiction” of his exile becomes especially exciting because, according to the legend, the city of Tomis (Tomoi) was the burial place of Absyrtos, the brother of Medea, murdered by her.

So Ovid wrote the following story about Janus and Cardea in the Fasti:
First of all, he notes that the 1st day of the month is dedicated to the goddess Carna, assuming that it is the goddess Cardea. (Probably because the 1st of the month also has a “threshold function”.)
He then calls her “Cranaë” and tells the story of this nymph, who happily hunted in the forests of Arcadia and was occasionally confused with the moon goddess Diana. Whenever a man approached her, she pretended to go with him. “Just find a hidden cave, I’ll be right behind you.”
In this way Cranaë got rid of all the annoying worshippers, for of course she quickly hides in the thicket.
But when the double-headed God Janus asked her, this trick didn’t work, because he could see what was happening behind his back. He overwhelms Cranae in the thicket, which Ovid describes very clearly: “You can’t do anything”,”Do nothing”, he lets Janus repeat twice.
After the deed Janus declares Cardea/Carna/Cranaë to be the goddess over the doorsteps.

The story of “robbery and subsequent idolisation” appears more frequently in myths. For example, with Bona Dea or with Priapus. .

In the goddess Cardea there are probably different deities fused together. Thus, this goddess, if one considers the ovidic reference of her as “Carna”, also finds a reference to the healing deities,
Carna was a goddess for the heart and the human life force, who also had the ability to deter so-called Striges, strange vampire creatures who are said to steal small children. A reproach that was also reported of Lilith.

By cjuneauLa Strige, CC BY 2.0, Link

Cardea, in her function as a door goddess, was able to keep away such Striges. All you need to do is hang a little hawthorn on the door.

By FreddyKrueger 10:43, 13. Mai 2008 (CEST) – FreddyKrueger 10:43, 13. Mai 2008 (CEST), Attribution, Link